18 / 01 / 2016

ارسال شده توسط در عناوین کل مطالب, مطالب علمی | 0 نظر

(what is hardiness (plants


انتخاب موضوع به لحاظ اهميت ان در علوم گياهي
ومشكلات روز واقتصاد جهاني غذا و تغير اقليم در جهان و ايران واينكه تمام انهاي كه در بخش كشاورزيوباغباني ومرتعداري ومنابع طبيعي وفضاي سبز خانگي و  شهري وتجاري وپاركها وتفرجگاها وبيابان وبيابان زدايي ابخيزداري با  پوشش گياهي( وحتي در علم جانور شناسي)و حيوانات و شيلات.با اهميت است


وبنظر اين انجانب تمام كارشناسان ودانشجويان وانهاي كه در  رشته هاي موارد فوق كفتيم بايد از علم مطالب فوق به عنوان خوراك روز اطلاعات كسب كنند تا از ديد گاه هزينه واقتصاد و استفاده بهينه به ديد كارشناسي وعلم روز استفاده نمايد.و تا موفق شونددر كوتاه مدت وميان مدت وبلند مدت.بتوانند برنامه ريزي نمايندو از منابع خدادادي با دانش و وعلم تكنولوژي روز بهره گردنند. لطفا در كتابهاي مرتبط وسايتهاي مختلف اينترنتي جستجوكنيد. شايان ذكراست اين عوامل (شامل  .اقليم  وهوا.  سرما  .گرما  .خشكي  .باد  .اب گرفتگي )وغيره كه در اينده خواهم گفت وترجمه خواهيم كرد.و دانشجويان به عنوان مقاله روز كار كنند.

 با تشكر از wikipedia
كه علم روز دنيارا در اخيتار مردم جهان قرار مي دهد.براي زندگي بهتر بشر.و هشدار جهاني.


 و به ساده بايد گفت چرا خرما در سرحد رشد نمي كند ولي در گرمسير رشد ميكند وسازگراست وچرا دانشمندان علم گياه شناسي وحيوان شناسي با علم ژنتيك به دنبال تغييرات وبهينه سازي اين ژنها هستند و خواهند بود ووجرا در بعضي جاها در اين علم در اين تاريخ درجا زده اند.

Hardiness (plants)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hardiness of plants describes their ability to survive adverse growing conditions. It is usually limited to discussions ofclimatic adversity. Thus a plants ability to tolerate coldheatdroughtflooding, or wind are typically considered measurements of hardiness. Hardiness of plants is defined by their native extent’s geographic location: longitudelatitudeand elevation. These attributes are often simplified to a hardiness zone. In temperate latitudes, the term most often describes resistance to cold, or “cold-hardiness,” and is generally measured by the lowest temperature a plant can withstand. Hardiness of a plant is usually divided into two categories: tender, and hardy. Some sources also use the erroneous terms “Half-hardy” or “Fully hardy”. Tender plants are those killed by freezing temperatures, while hardy plants survive freezing—at least down to certain temperatures, depending on the plant. “Half-hardy” is a term used sometimes in horticulture to describe bedding plants which are sown in heat in winter or early spring, and planted outside after all danger of frost has passed. “Fully hardy” usually refers to plants being classified under the Royal Horticultural Society classifications, and can often cause confusion to those not using this method.[1]

Plants vary a lot in their tolerance of growing conditions. The selective breeding of varieties capable of withstanding particular climates forms an important part of agriculture and horticulture. Plants adapt to changes in climate on their own to some extent. Part of the work of nursery growers of plants consists of cold hardening, or hardening off their plants, to prepare them for likely conditions in later life.



Winter hardiness[edit]

Winter-hardy plants grow during the winter, or at least remain healthy and dormant. Apart from the obvious evergreens, these include many cultivated plants, including some cabbage and broccoli, and all kinds of carrot. Some bulbs – such astulips – need cold winters in order to bloom, while others – such as freesia – can survive a freezing winter. Many domestic plants are assigned a hardiness zone that specifies the climates in which they can survive. Winter gardens are dependent upon the cultivation of winter-hardy plants.

Hardiness ratings[edit]

Heather, Calluna vulgaris, one of Britain’s hardiest plants (North York Moors)

Various hardiness ratings are published. The most widely used is the USDA system of Hardiness zone based on average minimum yearly temperatures. This system was developed specifically for the extremely diverse range of conditions in the United States (US), from baking desert to frozen tundra. Another commonly used system is the Sunset Climate Zone system[citation needed]. This system is much more specific to climates (i.e. precipitation, temperature, and humidity based) and less dependent on the yearly minimum.

In contrast the United Kingdom (UK) and Western Europe have an oceanic climate, and experience a narrower range of temperatures that is tempered by the presence of the Gulf Stream. This results in areas like western Scotland experiencing conditions conducive to growing subtropical plants, despite the relatively northerly latitude. The Royal Horticultural Society has published a set of hardiness ratings applicable to the UK.[2] The ratings range from H1a to H7. H1a, higher than 15 °C (59 °F), applies to tropical plants permanently under glass in heat; while H7, below −20 °C (−4 °F), applies to very cold-tolerant plants such as heathers. Most outdoor plants in the UK fall within the range H4, −10 to −5 °C (14 to 23 °F) (hardy in the average winter) to H5, −15 to −10 °C (5 to 14 °F) (hardy in a cold winter). Also, the average minimum temperature in the UK is much warmer than the average minimums in most of the US (see Hardiness Zone ). This means that the coldest areas in the UK would be considered USDA Zone 7, plants considered ‘Fully Hardy’ in the UK may not be hardy below Zone 7 in the US.[3]

In addition to cold tolerance, plant hardiness has been observed to be linked to how much stress specific plants are under going into the winter, or even how fast the onset of cold weather is in a specific year. This means that often stressed plants will exhibit less cold tolerance than plants that have been well maintained. Plants may also die if the winter changes from balmy to exceptionally cold in a short period of time. Hardiness can also vary significantly within a single plot. A bed near a building or road, for instance, may be several degrees warmer due to residual radiant heat, while the presence of

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