13 / 01 / 2016

ارسال شده توسط در عناوین کل مطالب, مطالب علمی | 0 نظر

The facts and Historical of Global worming امار هاي واقعي تغيير اقليم وگرم شدن كره زمين.

http://md-jafari.world-watch.of-water.com/media/uploads/2016/01/85520489015968235562_thumb-2.png

پزوهشگر ونويسنده و ترجمه وتحليل از سيد محمود جعفري

سوره أنبياء آيه 16 در ذيل

…اي بشر تو چه بر سر جهان مي اوري براي زندگي و شكم و عاقبت بخيري يا نخيري.كدام؟

‏متن آيه : ‏ 16
‏ وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاء وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا لَاعِبِينَ ‏

‏ترجمه :
‏ما كه آسمان و زمين و آنچه در ميان آنها است براي بازي و شوخي نيافريده‌ايم ( و بيهوده و بي‌هدف ساخته و پرداخته نساخته‌ايم ) .‏

    رد يا جاي  پاي اب در دنيا -اب چگونه بوجود امد ايا در كره زمين ناگهان خداوند ان را افريد يا از كرات ديگر با كره زمين برخورد كرد وموجودات زنده افريده شد؟

تصویر مرتبط85520489015968235562.jpeg;

بحران اب در چه مناطقي از كره زمين رخ داده است

چقدر يا جند صدهزار يا ميليون ها روستا   از نبود اب هر روز وهر ماه وهر سال تخليه مي گردند. چقدر چاه هاي اب و يا قنات ها در هر سال خشك مي شوند . و چگونه سيل هاي وحشتناك واراضي در جند روز ناگهان اب گرفتگي مي شود. وتغيير اقليم جه ها مي كند وچه مي گويد به انسانها . براي برنامه ريزي مديريت پايدار.

DIRECTOR’S NOTE:

امار تكان دهنده در جهان هستي .نمايندگان مجلس دنيا بايد همه اين مسايل را بدانند..از اب تا زندگي.  اداره كنندگان علوم وتكنولوژي جهان با نكته هايشان چه مي گويند.باز هم حقايق وامار وارقام در ارتباط با مديريت انسانهاو مشكلات گرم شدن كره زمين و منابع طبيعي و بيابان شدن اراضي و ونابودشدن پوشش گياهي و مسايل زيست محيطي ونياز ابي وغذاي گياهان و حيوانات در چرخه توليدومسائل خشكسالي وپيامد ان در تاريخ از دانشمندان وكارشناسان (فائو FAO) و صاحب نظران اين علوم.

Sustainable development

تعريف توسعه پايدار از ديدگاه فائو )FAO(

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


has been defined by FAO as “the management and conservation of the natural resource base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development (in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors) conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable”. (FAO Council, 1989).

توسعه پايدار تعاريف متعددي دارد

Sustainable development has numerous definitions
and its ecological, economic and social principles received universal agreement at the 1992 Earth Summit. One of the summit’s major outcomes, Agenda 21, includes a whole chapter (Chapter 14) on sustainable agriculture and rural development. Today, 106 countries have National Sustainable Development Strategies and at least 120 voluntary sustainability standards are being implemented by the food and agriculture industry. However, developing and implementing an integrated approach to analyzing different sustainability dimensions as a coherent whole and integrating them in development or business strategies remains a major challenge

Sustainability Assessment of Food andAgriculture systems (SAFA)

 وسارا  قبلا گفتيم دارا و سارا كيست.-در رابطه با توسعه پايدار      Sustainable Development   جهان و كشور تو و من و سواد (دانش) براي نمايندگان مجلس دنيا .دارا گفت دارا بيچاره . .حال دانشمند شده واين چنين مي گويد.كل نمايندگان مجلس دنيا بايد اين مسائل ذيل را مطالعه كنند وبدانند. وهر كدام حداقل(100) صفحه اچاربرگ كاغذ نه اچار مكانيكي .مقاله علمي واجراي تهيه نمايند براي تعريف توسعه پايدار و برنامه ريزي ان ودر روزنامه ها و تلوزيونهاي محلي وكشوري برنامه هاي خود را به مردم ارائه دهند زيرا از مردم حقوق كلان مي گيرند   و  در حال جرت زدن واظهار نظر پوچ در مجالس براي مردم خود ودنيا نباشند…..زيرا دنيا عوض شده وافراد روشن فكر با ديد جهاني با علم ودانش وپرتلاش نياز مردم دنيا است ….باري به هر جهت يعني هر وقت دلت مي خواهد بمير و بس….. ما همين كه هستيم. هستيم و اگر دوست نداري مملكت خود. … به تو پاسپورت خواهيم داد واز اين كشور خارج شو( يا) موفق مي شوي و يا بالاخره مي ميري ….اخرش هم زندگي انسانها مردن است…انسانها با بيماري هاي  خاص همانند ms وتلاسمي و هموفيلي ونارساي هاي كليوي هم كه دارو نداشته باشند مهم نيست (چه )امروز بميري چه فردا….ما هستيم (كه) بايد خوب زندگي كنيم كه همه جيز مهيا است فعلا…فردا هم عاقبت امرزنده باشد( يا)  نباشد  هم مهم نخواهد بيد. لطفا اگر قبول نداري بطور مثال در ايران كه منابع نفتي  وگازي ندارد.سري به بيمارستان شهيد دستغيب شيراز بزنيد تا ببيني كدام دارو ها است وكدام نيست؟

Since 1978 over 750,000 square kilometers (289,000 square miles) of Amazon rainforest have been destroyed across Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana, and French Guiana. Why is Earth’s largest rainforest being destroyed?
از سال 1978 ميلادي 750000 كيلومتر مربع كه مي شود 289000 مايل مربع  در مناطق  جنگل هاي باراني امازون در برزيل و كولومبيا و  پرو و بلووي و ونزوئلا و سرينيم و گوان  وگوينيا كه همه انگليسي انها در بالا است كه بزرگ ترين مناطق جنگلهاي باراني دنيا است چرا از بين رفته است

.با ما باش ادامه دارد.

The science and research done on the true impacts of animal agriculture is always growing. The statistics used in the film were based on the information below.

We will continually update this list with further resources as they become available.

Although there may be fluctuations in numbers from year to year and from researcher to researcher, the fact remains that animal agriculture, as a whole, requires tremendous amounts of resources and is a leader in environmental degradation.

 

AllanSavory5

 

 

Animal agriculture is responsible for 18 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, more than all transportation combined. [i] توليد دام هاي پرورشي 18 درصد گاز هاي گلخانه اي در جو  را سبب مي شوند وا ين پديده حتي از دود وسايل نقليه از جمله اتومبيل وغيره بيشتر است.گزارش كارشناسان( FAO )  فائو .بيان گر ان است كه پرورش دام ها يكي از مسايل اصلي الوده گي زيست محيطي از جمله گرم شدن كره زمين واز بين رفتن پوشش گياهي و الوده گي اب وهوا و از بين رفتن تنوع زيستي مي باشد كه در علم اصول شناسي مشخص شده است اين امار فوق به عبارتي كارشناسي علمي شده است. بقيه براي مطالعه كليك كنيد واگر سئوالي داشتييد لطفا ايميل بزنيد زيرا اين اطلاعات براي دانش پژوهان وبرنامه ريزان مملكتي بسيار مهم است.

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Fao.org. Spotlight: Livestock impacts on the environment.

http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0612sp1.htm روي اين نوشته كليك كنيدبراي اطلاع وحقايق مطلب.

Transportation is responsible for 13% of all greenhouse gas emissions.تركيبات منتشره از اگزاز ماشين الات انواع واقسام زميني ودرياي وهواي. مسبب 13 در صد توليد گازهاي گلخانهاي  در جو است.

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Industry (19% of 2004 global greenhouse gas emissions) كارخانه جان وصنايع وابسته

عكس هاي ذيل نگاه كنيد  كارخانه سيمان فيروزاباد است در دشت موك جنگل فيروزاباداستان فارس اينجانب بخاطر دارم هنگام بحث اين پروژه اينجانب واقاي منهدس ابراهيم صدوق اين منطقه را باز ديد وگزارش كرديم كه اين مكان جايگاهي براي اين پروژه از نظر علمي با وجود اين همه پوشش گياهي بي نظير و  مسايل زيست محيطي  ندارد شايان ذكر است مديرت وقت  اقاي مهندس محسني و معا ونت فني وقت اقاي مهندس اسكندري  كه اكنون در سازمان جنگلها است نظر ما داشتند وموافق با احداث ان پروژه نبودند چه شد كه اجرا گرديد بنده اطلاعي بيشتر ندارم اگر داشتم عنوان مي كردم .  اما كو گوش شنوا.مردن تدريجي جنگل. لطفا در گوگل (نقشه( google earth) برويد) وببينيد اين منطقه با پوشش گياهي  منطقه ايران توراني) با شاخص درخت بنه وكيكم وارژن وبادام كوهي وزالزالك باديگر گونه هاي همراه در اين اقليم زيباي چندين صد ساله  در حال مردن تدريجي كه يكي از فاكتورهاي مردن هم وجود كارخانه سيمان مي باشد. سواد يعني اينده نگري همه جانبه.  حفظ و توسعه پايدار.

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Global Emissions by Source

 

Global greenhouse gas emissions can also be broken down by the economic activities that lead to their production. [1]

 

  • Energy Supply (26% of 2004 global greenhouse gas emissions) – The burning of coal, natural gas, and oil for electricity and heat is the largest single source of global greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Industry (19% of 2004 global greenhouse gas emissions) – Greenhouse gas emissions from industry primarily involve fossil fuels burned on-site at facilities for energy. This sector also includes emissions from chemical, metallurgical, and mineral transformation processes not associated with energy consumption. (Note: Emissions from electricity use are excluded and are instead covered in the Energy Supply sector.)
  • Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (17% of 2004 global greenhouse gasemissions) – Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector primarily include carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from deforestation, land clearing for agriculture, and fires or decay of peat soils. This estimate does not include the CO2 that ecosystems remove from the atmosphere. The amount of CO2 that is removed is subject to large uncertainty, although recent estimates indicate that on a global scale, ecosystems on land remove about twice as much CO2 as is lost by deforestation. [2]
  • Agriculture (14% of 2004 GHG emissions) – global greenhouse gas emissions) – Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture mostly come from the management of agricultural soils, livestock, rice production, and biomass burning.
  • Transportation (13% of 2004 global greenhouse gas emissions) – Greenhouse gasemissions from this sector primarily involve fossil fuels burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation. Almost all (95%) of the world’s transportation energy comes from petroleum-based fuels, largely gasoline and diesel.
  • Commercial and Residential Buildings (8% of 2004 global greenhouse gas emissions) – Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector arise from on-site energy generation and burning fuels for heat in buildings or cooking in homes. (Note: Emissions from electricity use are excluded and are instead covered in the Energy Supply sector.)
  • Waste and Wastewater (3% of 2004 global greenhouse gas emissions) – The largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in this sector is landfill methane (CH4), followed by wastewater methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Incineration of some waste products that were made with fossil fuels, such as plastics and synthetic textiles, also results in minor emissions of CO2.

 

Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector primarily involve fossil fuels burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation.

Environmental Protection Agency. “Global Emissions.”

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/global.html اينجا كليك نماييد براي توضيحات

Livestock and their byproducts account for at least 32,000 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year, or 51% of all worldwide greenhouse gas emissions.اين براورد بيان گر ان است كه وجود وپرورش انواع دام ها و پس امد انها حداقل 32000 ميليون تن كربن دي اكسايدco2 در سال ويا به عبارتي مسبب  – 51 درصد   توليد انتشار گازهاي گلخانهاي در جو مي باشد.
While carbon dioxide is typically painted as the bad boy of greenhouse gases, methane is roughly 30 times more potent as a heat-trapping gas

66633964559618785602.jpgFreshwater wetlands can release methane, a potent greenhouse gas, as the planet warms. (Image source: RGBstock.com)

Freshwater wetlands can release methane, a potent greenhouse gas, as the planet warms.

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Goodland, R Anhang, J. “Livestock and Climate Change: What if the key actors in climate change were pigs, chickens and cows?”

WorldWatch, November/December 2009. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, USA. Pp. 10–19.

http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6294 براي توضيحات كليك نماييد

Methane is 25-100 times more destructive than CO2. گاز  CH4 متان  25  تا 100 درصد مخرب تر از گاز دي اكساي كربن co2

كره زمين را تحديد مي كند  و واي به ان روزي كه يخهاي موجود در كره زمين همه اب گردد. كه با توجه به گرم شدن كره زمين از 15 سال گذشته اين پديده نا باور به بارور تبديل شده است. ومسسب ان هم مديرت غلط انسانها وزياده خواهي انها از اين كره خاكي است. كه خداون در كتاب اسماني مي فرمايد ما نسلي را بر مي اندازيم ونسل نو را به پا مي كنيم و اين هم يك بعد ان است براي درس دادن به بشر.

“Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions.” Science Magazine.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5953/716.figures-only براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

Methane has a global warming power 86 times that of CO2.
امار تكان دهنده  براي مغز خشكان تار عنكبوتي دنيا — قدرت گاز  CH4 متان  86 برابر كربن دي اكسايد كره زمين را گرم تر ميتواند بكند.

NASA. “Methane: Its Role as a Greenhouse Gas.” Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/education/pdfs/podest_ghg.pdf براي توضيحات كليك نماييد

IPCC. “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis.” Working Group I.

Please note the following PDF is very large and may take a while to load:

http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/report/WG1AR5_ALL_FINAL.pdf   براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

Livestock is responsible for 65% of all emissions of nitrous oxide – a greenhouse gas 296x more destructive than carbon dioxide and which stays in the atmosphere for 150 years. دام ها همان حيوانات.مسسب 65 در صد انتشار گاز اكسيد نيتروژن مي باشد كه يك گاز گلخانهاي ديگر است كه X296 برابر مخرب تر از گاز كربن دي اكسايد است كهدر اتمسفر باقي مي ماند براي 150 سال.

“Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.htm

Fracking (hydraulic fracturing) water use ranges from 70-140 billion gallons annually.

“Draft Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources.” EPA Office of Research and Development. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011.

http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/HFStudyPlanDraft_SAB_020711.pdf براي توضيحات كليك نماييد

Animal agriculture use ranges from 34-76 trillion gallons of water annually. [ii] دام هاي كشاورزي توليدي بين 34 تا 76 ترليون گالون اب كه هر گالون 4 ليتر است مصرف مي نمايند در سال ….هر گالون يا گالن امريكا   ( 3.78 ) مي باشد كه ما براي اينكه رند شودتقريبا (4 ليتر )در ذهن محاسبه نماييد واگر مي خواهيد دقيق شود بايد (3.78 ) گرفته شود. لطفا.

Pimentel, David, et al. “Water Resources: Agricultural And Environmental Issues.” BioScience 54, no. 10 (2004): 909-18.

http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/10/909.full

Barber, N.L., “Summary of estimated water use in the United States in 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3098.”

http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3098/ براي توضيحات كليك نماييد

Agriculture is responsible for 80-90% of US water  consumption
80 تا 90 در درصد اب دسترسي دنيا با كيفيت هاي مختلف براي امور كشاورزي مصرف مي گردد.

“USDA ERS – Irrigation & Water Use.” United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. 2013.

http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/farm-practices-management/irrigation-water-use/background.aspx براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

Growing feed crops for livestock consumes 56% of water in the US.

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براي توليدخوراك هاي دامي در امريكا   56    درصد اب مصرفي كشاورزي مورد استفاده قرارمي گيرد.

Jacobson, Michael F. “More and Cleaner Water.” In Six Arguments for a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could save Your Health and the Environment.
Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.

http://www.cspinet.org/EatingGreen/pdf/arguments4.pdf براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

One hamburger requires 660 gallons of water to produce – the equivalent of 2 months’ worth of showers. [iii] براي توليد يك (همبر گر) كه شما نوش جان مي كنيد 660 گالون اب كه هر گالون 4 ليتر است نياز مي باشد.

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Catanese, Christina. “Virtual Water, Real Impacts.” Greenversations: Official Blog of the U.S. EPA. 2012.

http://blog.epa.gov/healthywaters/2012/03/virtual-water-real-impacts-world-water-day-2012/ براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

“50 Ways to Save Your River.” Friends of the River.

http://www.friendsoftheriver.org/site/PageServer?pagename=50ways براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

2,500 gallons of water are needed to produce 1 pound of beef.
2500-گالون اب كه هر گالون 4 ليتر است براي توليد يك پاوند گوشت گوساله وزني امريكا نياز مي باشد. هر پاوند معادل 454 گرم است بگو نيم كيلو.

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Robbins, John. “2,500 Gallons, All Wet?” EarthSave

http://www.earthsave.org/environment/water.htm براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

Meateater’s Guide to Climate Change & Health.” Environmental Working Group.

http://www.ewg.org/meateatersguide/interactive-graphic/water/ براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

“Water Footprint Assessment.” University of Twente, the Netherlands.

http://www.waterfootprint.org براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print

477 gallons of water are required to produce 1 pound of eggs; 900 gallons of water are needed for cheese.
477 گالون اب هر گالون 4 ليتر اب نياز است كه بتوان يك پاوند معادل 454 تخم مرغ توليد كرد
900 گالون اب نياز است كه كه 454 گرم پنير توليد كرد.

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“Meateater’s Guide to Climate Change & Health.” Environmental Working Group.

http://www.ewg.org/meateatersguide/interactive-graphic/water/ براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

1,000 gallons of water are required to produce 1 gallon of milk.
1000 گالون اب كه هر گالون 4 ليتر است براي توليد يك گالون شير يعني 4 ليتر مورد مصرف قرار مي گيرد.

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“Water trivia facts.” United States Environmental Protection Agency.

http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids/drinkingwater/water_trivia_facts.cfm#_edn11 براي توضيحات كليك نماييد.

5% of water consumed in the US is by private homes.

5 درصد اب مصرفي خانگي در امريكا خصوصي مي باشد.

55% of water consumed in the US is for animal agriculture.

55 درصد از اب مصرفي براي دام ها مورد استفاده قرار مي گيرد.

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Jacobson, Michael F. “More and Cleaner Water.” In Six Arguments for a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could save Your Health and the Environment. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.

http://www.cspinet.org/EatingGreen/pdf/arguments4.pdf توضيحات كليك نماييد.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

The meat and dairy industries combined use nearly 1/3 (29%) of all the fresh water in the world today.

24412298675102540428.jpg78210541807333936449.jpg

توليدات گوشت وشير در جهان يك سوم يعني 29 درصد اب تازه جهان رامصرف مي كند.

50110774171302154670.jpg92361298959078079983.jpg

“Freshwater Abuse and Loss: Where Is It All Going?” Forks Over Knives.

http://www.forksoverknives.com/freshwater-abuse-and-loss-where-is-it-all-go توضيحات كليك نماييد.

Livestock covers 45% of the earth’s total land.
دام هاي جهان 45 درصد اراضي جهان را اشغال و همين دامها وجمعيت انسان است كه پوشش گياهي دنيا را تحديد مي نمايد به صورت جدي.

84351405461972062923.jpg86497554037963665896.jpg

Thornton, Phillip, Mario Herrero, and Polly Ericksen. “Livestock and Climate Change.” Livestock Exchange, no. 3 (2011).

https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/10601/IssueBrief3.pdf توضيحات كليك نماييد.

Animal agriculture is the leading cause of species extinction, ocean dead zones, water pollution [iv], and habitat destruction.

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دام هاي كشاورزي باعث عمده از بين رفتن گونه هاي گياهي والوده گي ابها ومناطق زيست جانوري وانقراض وتخريب و ويراني انها مي گردند

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

“What’s the Problem?” United States Environmental Protection Agency.

http://www.epa.gov/region9/animalwaste/problem.html

“Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.htm      كيك نماييد.

“Fire Up the Grill for a Mouthwatering Red, White, and Green July 4th.” Worldwatch Institute.

http://www.worldwatch.org/fire-grill-mouthwatering-red-white-and-green-july-4th كليك نماييد.

Oppenlander, Richard A. “Biodiversity and Food Choice: A Clarification.” Comfortably Unaware. 2012

http://comfortablyunaware.com/blog/biodiversity-and-food-choice-a-clarification/ كليك نماييد.

“Risk Assessment Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Research and Development. 2004.

http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=901V0100.txt     كليك نماييد.

Every minute, 7 million pounds of excrement are produced by animals raised for food in the US.
در هر دقيقه 7 ميليون پاوند هر پاوند 454 گرم فضولات  ( تپله و پشكل وفضله وغيره )حيوانات براي توليدات مواد غذاي در امريكا به وجود مي ايد.

72703951103557775141.jpg17000848466442594013.jpg

This doesn’t include the animals raised outside of USDA jurisdiction or in backyards, or the billions of fish raised in aquaculture settings in the US. [v]

“What’s the Problem?” United States Environmental Protection Agency.

http://www.epa.gov/region9/animalwaste/problem.html      كليك نماييد.

“How To Manage Manure.” Healthy Landscapes.

http://www.uri.edu/ce/healthylandscapes/livestock/how_manure_overall.htm     كليك نماييد.

335 million tons of “dry matter” is produced annually by livestock in the US.

“FY-2005 Annual Report Manure and Byproduct Utilization National Program 206.”
USDA Agricultural Research Service. 2008.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/programs/programs.htm?np_code=206&docid=13337   كليك نماييد.

A farm with 2,500 dairy cows produces the same amount of waste as a city of 411,000 people. [vi]
يك مزرعه با 2500 گاو شيري به اندازه شهري كه 411000 نفر جمعيت دارد فضولات وپس مانده دارد. ايا اين سوسك در سمت چپ مي شناسي به اين سوسك گويند (تپله يا گوه لوله كن )ضمن پوزش بعضي از انسانها حتي شعور وفهم اين سوسك هم براي زندگي وبي ازاري موجودات زنده ندارند. لطفا شخصيت خود را بر انداز كنيد.يعني مرور كنيد.

93854826384762040945.jpg22139435763905446535.jpg

“Risk Assessment Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Research and Development. 2004.

http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=901V0100.txt كليك نماييد.

3/4 of the world’s fisheries are exploited.

“Overfishing: A Threat to Marine Biodiversity.” UN News Center.

http://www.un.org/events/tenstories/06/story.asp?storyid=800     كليك نماييد.در بالا

“General Situation of World Fish Stocks.” United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/1000505/en/stocks.pdf     كليك نماييد.

90 million tons of fish are pulled from our oceans each year. [vii]
90 ميليون تن انواع ماهي هر سال از اقانوسها صيد مي گردد وبدانيم كه به علت مسايل زيست محيطي وبارانهاي اسيدي وخرابي هاي كه به دست بشر به وجود مي ايد چند تن ماهي وبچه ماهي از بين مي روند.هر سال.

69386281439655615093.jpg97100356146105810435.jpg

“World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture.” UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO). 2012.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e01.pdf      كليك نماييد.

For every 1 pound of fish caught, an average of 5 pounds of unintended marine species are caught and discarded as by-kill. [viii]
براي تهيه يك پاوند ماهي كه مي شود 454 گرم 5 پاوند موجودات درياي به صورت غير عمد گرفتار و از بين مي روند . وبعد مي گويند بشر اشرف مخلوقات است.

“Discards and Bycatch in Shrimp Trawl Fisheries.”
UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO).

http://www.fao.org/docrep/W6602E/w6602E09.htm كليك نماييد.

As many as 40% (63 billion pounds) of fish caught globally every year are discarded.
به اين امار توجه كنيد. 40 در صد ماهي ها يعني 63 بيليون پاوند كه هر پاوند 454 گرم است كه در دنيا هر سال صيدمي شود به علت اينكه تور ماهي گيري همه موجودات را در خود مي گيرد . و بسياري از موجودات زنده درياي بدرد نخور است براي اين منظور خوراكي.  دور ريخته مي شود وحال نگاه كنيد چند تن موجودات زنده مي ميرند هر روز وهرسال. واي به اين شكم انسان. وقبلا هم گفتيم كل توليداتي كه بشر توليد مي كند تا به شكم انسان برسي 50 در صد ان دور ريخته مي شودهر سال. اين امارذيل هم نگاه كنيد در مناطق مختلف.

Goldenberg, Suzanne. “America’s Nine Most Wasteful Fisheries Named.” The Guardian.

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/mar/20/americas-nine-most-wasteful-fisheries-named كليك نماييد.

Scientists estimate as many as 650,000 whales, dolphins and seals are killed every year by fishing vessels.

دانشمندان براورد مي كنند كه حدود 650000هزار عدد نهنگ و دولفين وخوك ابي هر سال توسط كشتي هاي ماهي گيري از بين مي روند يعني مي ميرند در دريا.

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Goldenberg, Suzanne. “America’s Nine Most Wasteful Fisheries Named.” The Guardian.

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/mar/20/americas-nine-most-wasteful-fisheries-named    كليك نماييد.

100 million tons of fish are caught annually.
اين چنين براورد مي شود كه حدود 100 ميليون تن ماهي هر سال صيد مي شود در دنيا. وخيلي هم خشحال نباشيم كه در اينده به علت مسايل زيست محيطي وتغيير اقليم اوضاع خرابتر خواهد شد.

58381293415522686257.jpg

Montaigne, fen. “Still waters: The global fish crisis.” National Geographic.

http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/global-fish-crisis-article/    كليك نماييد.

Fish catch peaks at 85 million tons.

“World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture.” UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO). 2012.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e01.pdf كليك نماييد.

Animal agriculture is responsible for 91% of Amazon destruction.اين امار ومطالعه نشان مي دهد كه91 در صدتخريب وويراني منطقه امازون در برزيل گله هاي گاوهاي پرورشي است براي مطالعه بيشتر در بالا كليك نماييد.
report is to show that, in contrast to the 1970s and 1980s when occupation of Brazilian Amazonia was largely induced by government policies and subsidies, recent deforestation in significant parts of the region is basically caused by medium- and large-scale cattle ranching .

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

Margulis, Sergio. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Rainforest. Washington: World Bank Publications, 2003.

https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/15060 كليك نماييد.

1-2 acres of rainforest are cleared every second.
1- الي 2 ايكر كه هر ايكر معادل 4050 متربربع است در هر ثانيه جنگل در مناطق جنگلهاي باراني دنيا از بين مي روند.

“Avoiding Unsustainable Rainforest Wood.” Rainforest Relief.

http://www.rainforestrelief.org/What_to_Avoid_and_Alternatives/Rainforest_Wood.html كليك نماييد.

Facts about the rainforest.

http://www.savetherainforest.org/savetherainforest_007.htm كليك نماييد.

Rainforest facts.

http://www.rain-tree.com/facts.htm   كليك نماييد.

The leading causes of rainforest destruction are livestock and feedcrops.

بزرگترين دليل تخريب  و ويراني جنگلهاي باراني پرورش حيوانات و جنگل تراشي براي امور زراعتها مي باشد.

Pasture and legal forest reserve near the Arc of Deforestation in the Brazilian AmazonPasture and legal forest reserve near the Arc of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

“Livestock impacts on the environment.” Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (fao). 2006.

http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0612sp1.htm كليك نماييد.

110 plant, animal and insect species are lost every day due to rainforest destruction.
110  گونه گياهي وانواع حيوانات و حشره ها هر روز در جنگلهاي باراني به علت تخريب و ويراني در دنيا از بين مي رود

“Rainforest statistics and facts.” Save the amazon.

http://www.savetheamazon.org/rainforeststats.htm كليك نماييد.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

26 million rainforest acres have been cleared for palm oil production. [ix]
26 ميليون ايكر كه هر ايكر معادل 4050 متر مربع است تا بحال براي توليد روغن پالم از درخت پالم نوعي درخت خرما.

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palm oil

  در كشور هاي مستعد از جمله مالزي و غيره جنگل تراشي شده است در حالي كه علوم روز پزشكي مشخص كرده است كه اين روغن براي استفاده انسان مضر مي باشد وانسانها گوش شنوا ندارند.

80495084086339951375.jpg85226448152792039479.jpg

“Indonesia: palm oil expansion unaffected by forest moratorium.” USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 2013.

http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/highlights/2013/06/indonesia/ كليك نماييد.

136 million rainforest acres cleared for animal agriculture.

For most of human history, deforestation in the Amazon was primarily the product of subsistence farmers who cut down trees to produce crops for their families and local consumption. But in the later part of the 20th century, that began to change, with an increasing proportion of deforestation driven by industrial activities and large-scale agriculture. By the 2000s more than three-quarters of forest clearing in the Amazon was for cattle-ranching.

136 ميليون ايكر  كه هر ايكر معادل 4050 متر مربع است جنگلهاي باراني پاك سازي وجنگل تراشي مي شود براي پرورش حيوانات به علت نياز زندگي ورشد جمعيت وبي برنامه گي.

“AMAZON DESTRUCTION.” MONGA BAY.

http://rainforests.mongabay.com/amazon/amazon_destruction.html كليك نماييد.

1,100 activists have been killed in Brazil in the past 20 years. [x]
More than 1,100 activists, small farmers, judges, priests and other rural workers have been killed in land disputes in the last two decades, according to the Catholic Land Pastoral, a Brazilian watchdog group.
بيش از 1100 نفر فعالان از جمله قضات وكشيش وكارگران روستاي در  دو ده يعني بيست سال گذشته در منازعات يا به عبارتي اختلافات زمين كشته شده اند.

Batty, David. “Brazilian faces retrial over murder of environmental activist nun in Amazon.” The Guardian. 2009.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/apr/08/brazilian-murder-dorothy-stang كليك نماييد.

Cows produce 150 billion gallons of methane per day. [xi]

Ross, Philip. “Cow farts have ‘larger greenhouse gas impact’ than previously thought; methane pushes climate change.” International Business Times. 2013.

http://www.ibtimes.com/cow-farts-have-larger-greenhouse-gas-impact-previously-thought-methane-pushes-climate-change-1487502 كليك نماييد.

130 times more animal waste than human waste is produced in the US – 1.4 billion tons from the meat industry annually. 5 tons of animal waste is produced for every person. [xii]

Animal agriculture: waste management practices. United States General Accounting Office.

http://www.gao.gov/archive/1999/rc99205.pdf كليك نماييد.

2-5 acres of land are used per cow.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. 

Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

The average American consumes 209 pounds of meat per year.

Haney, Shaun. “How much do we eat?” Real agriculture. 2012. (276 lbs)

How Much Meat Do We Eat?

“US meat, poultry production & consumption” American Meat Institute. 2009. (233.9 lbs)

http://www.meatami.com/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/48781 كليك كنيد.

Bernard, Neal. “Do we eat too much?” Huffington Post. (200 lbs)

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/neal-barnard-md/american-diet-do-we-eat-too-much_b_805980.html كليك كنيد.

Nearly half of the contiguous US is devoted to animal agriculture. [xiii]
30% of the Earth’s entire land surface is used by the livestock sector.

Versterby, Marlow; Krupa, Kenneth. “Major uses of land in the United States.” Updated 2012. USDA Economic Research Service.

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/sb-statistical-bulletin/sb-973.aspx#.VAoXcl7E8dt

“Rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than driving cars, UN report warns.”

UN News Centre, 2006.

http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?newsID=20772    كليك كنيد.

1/3 of the planet is desertified, with livestock as the leading driver.

“UN launches international year of deserts and desertification.”

UN news centre, 2006.

http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=17076#.VAodM17E8ds كليك كنيد.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

World population in 1812: 1 billion; 1912: 1.5 billion; 2012: 7 billion.

“Human numbers through time.” Nova science programming.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/worldbalance/numb-nf.html كليك كنيد

70 billion farmed animals are reared annually worldwide. More than 6 million animals are killed for food every hour.

A well-fed world. factory farms.

http://www.awfw.org/factory-farms/

Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

Throughout the world, humans drink 5.2 billion gallons of water and eat 21 billion pounds of food each day.

Based on rough averages of 0.75 gallons of water and 3 lbs of food per day.

Worldwide, cows drink 45 billion gallons of water and eat 135 billion pounds of food each day.

Based on rough average of 30 gallons of water and 90 lbs of feed per day.

Land required to feed 1 person for 1 year:
Vegan: 1/6th acre
Vegetarian: 3x as much as a vegan
Meat Eater: 18x as much as a vegan

“Our food our future.” Earthsave.

http://www.earthsave.org/pdf/ofof2006.pdf

1.5 acres can produce 37,000 pounds of plant-based food.
1.5 acres can produce 375 pounds of meat.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

A person who follows a vegan diet PRODUCES 50% less carbon dioxide, 1/11th oil, 1/13th water, and 1/18th land compared to a meat-eater for their food.

CO2: “Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.” Climactic change, 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-014-1169-1/fulltext.html    كليك كنيد.

Oil, water: “Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment.”
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003.

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/78/3/660S.full كليك كنيد.

Land: “Our food our future.” Earthsave.

http://www.earthsave.org/pdf/ofof2006.pdf

Each day, a person who eats a vegan diet saves 1,100 gallons of water, 45 pounds of grain, 30 sq ft of forested land, 20 lbs CO2 equivalent, and one animal’s life. [xiv]

“Water Footprint Assessment.” University of Twente, the Netherlands.

http://www.waterfootprint.org كليك كنيد.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

“Measuring the daily destruction of the world’s rainforests.” Scientific American, 2009.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earth-talks-daily-destruction/ كليك كنيد.

“Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.” Climactic change, 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-014-1169-1/fulltext.html    كليك كنيد

“Meat eater’s guide to climate change and health.” The Environmental Working Group.

http://static.ewg.org/reports/2011/meateaters/pdf/methodology_ewg_meat_eaters_guide_to_health_and_climate_2011.pdf كليك كنيد.

Alan Savory TED Talk (included because we reference it in the film, not because we endorse his claims):

 

Allan-profile.jpgAllan Savory

Born 15 September 1935 (age 79)
BulawayoRhodesia (todayZimbabwe)
Fields Ecology, Resource management
Institutions Savory Institute
Africa Center for Holistic Management
Alma mater University of Natal
Known for Holistic management
Notable awards Banksia International Award (2003)
Buckminster Fuller Challenge (2010)

 


 

ADDITIONAL NOTES:

[i] NOTE: In 2013 the UN-FAO lowered livestock’s GHG emissions to 14.5%.

There are many other factors to consider in terms of level of concern we should have regarding the role of food choice in climate change, global depletion in general, and certain applicable time lines as represented (or misrepresented) by the United Nations or any other governing or research institution. In particular:

  1. does not represent the entire life cycle analysis (LCA) or supply chain of livestock products, notably omitting carbon dioxide production in respiration (on average 4.8 tons CO2 e/year/cow, 2.3 CO2 e/year/pig, etc.), provides no consideration for increased indirect radiative effects of methane on atmospheric aerosols and particulate capture related to smog (Shindell et al. 2009), and manages land use changes (LUC) with admitted “uncertainty” and under-counting/reporting
  2. ultimately defers to a separate category for reporting of greenhouse gas emissions related to “deforestation” (20% of global GHG emissions per UN-REDD), of which livestock and feed crops play a significant role, needing to be added to direct emissions (80% of Amazonian rainforest deforestation and degradation, and destruction of Cerrado savanna since 1970 has been due to expansion for cattle, with another 10% loss due to planting crops to feed them and other livestock)
  3. the global warming potential (GWP) for methane used in this report was from IPCC 2007, which was 21 at 100 years. However, the GWP of methane is actually 86 GWP at 20 years
  4. the report gave no consideration to carbon sequestration potential lost on land now used for livestock and feed production, which should have been considered as emissions (45% of the land mass on Earth now used by livestock and crops to feed them–International Livestock Research Institute)
  5. Consideration should be given to the fact that the lead authors have potential bias in this report; Pierre Gerber is the Livestock Policy Officer of the FAO and Henning Steinfeld is Chief, Livestock Information of the Livestock Sector Policy Branch of the FAO. There is little doubt why obvious omissions were therefore seen in their conclusions presented: “The global livestock sector is faced with a three-fold challenge: increasing production to meet demand, adapting to a changing and increasingly variable economic and natural environment and, lastly, improving its environmental performance.

This FAO report failed to represent urgency in regard to climate change and reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, performed no analysis of alternatives, and failed to present risks versus benefits of raising livestock on a global scale.

  1. there was no consideration of the effects of raising livestock on continued warming, acidification, deoxygenation and therefore diminished climate regulatory mechanisms of our oceans or time lines related to potential detrimental effects on the oxygen-nitrogen-carbon dioxide cycling capacities.
  2. the report gave no account for anthropogenic greenhouse gases generated by agricultural systems related to extraction or raising and eating fish–fuel, refrigeration, packaging, processing, transportation, etc. for both wild caught operations as well as those pertaining to aquaculture/aquaponics/aeroponics, which would thereby provide a more accurate and complete agricultural portrait related to our food choices making it easier for policy makers and consumers to interpret the data and findings
  3. there is no discussion, in an overview sense, to provide clarity regarding the component this happens to represent in livestock’s role, or food choice for that matter, in our current state of un-sustainability and the interrelated issues we face–freshwater scarcity, collapse of sea life oceanic ecosystems, unprecedented extinctions and loss of biodiversity, food security and agricultural land use inefficiencies, implications in human health and disease, rising health care costs and loss of productivity, economic risk factors, questions of social justice and implications regarding future generations, etc. (many of these issues are irreversible in our lifetime)–all part of the task of basic but thorough environmental scientific assessment, perhaps beyond the scope of livestock researchers/proponents for this one report, but the critical connection and relevance are vital should have been mentioned, nevertheless.It is quite clear by this report, which presents a filtered and quite limited view of the role of livestock in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and global depletion, that our team should focus our attention on whythere is suppression of information, lack of clarity, or elucidation of facts by our leaders related to the overarching problem of animal based agriculture as a component of food choice–and then how to swiftly correct this. Global governmental institutions such as the United Nations and its FAO should examine all the facts and present them accordingly as they interrelate. Then, they should be able to call for the frank elimination (or comprehensive “replacement”) of imminent threats to our survival such as food choices and agricultural systems that are disease promoting, ecologically unsustainable, and which condone massive unnecessary slaughtering–rather than calling for their perpetuation.

[ii] Although there are Cornell studies citing the water consumption of the US livestock industry at over 66 trillion gallons every year, we decided to go with a much more conservative figure of 34 trillion gallons based off the 2005 USGS figures putting the US total consumptive water use at 76 trillion gallons annually (non-consumptive is for thermoelectric and hydroelectric use that is typically returned directly back to its source immediately). The USDA says that agriculture is responsible for 80-90 percent of US water consumption and growing the feed crops for livestock consumes 56% of that water, bringing the total water consumption of the livestock industry to 34 trillion gallons.

[iii] 1/4 lbs burger = 2 months showering: based on taking a 4-minute daily shower with a 2.5 gpm shower head.

[iv] “A typical five-acre hog waste lagoon releases 15-30 tons of ammonia into the air annually. Approximately half of the ammonia rises as a gas and generally falls to forests, fields, or open water within 50 miles, either in rain or fog. The rest is transformed into dry particles that travel up to 250 miles.

Ammonia is the most potent form of nitrogen that triggers algae blooms and causes fish kills in coastal waters. The North Carolina Division of Water Quality estimates that hog factories constitute the largest source of airborne ammonia in North Carolina, more than cattle, chickens, and turkeys combined. In 1995, Hans Paerl, a marine ecologist from the University of North Carolina, reported that airborne ammonia had risen 25% each year since 1991 in Morehead City, 90 miles downwind of the hog belt.”

[v] -Dairy Cows, 120lbs of waste per day,x 9 million cows.

-Cattle, 63lbs of waste per day, x 90 million cattle.

-Pigs, 14lbs. of waste per day, x 67 million pigs.

-Sheep/Goats. 5lbs of waste per day, x 9 million sheep/goats.

-Poultry, .25lbs of waste per day, x 10 billion birds.

Dairy cows and cattle-1.08 billion pounds per day (from 9 million dairy cows, 120 pounds waste per cow per day) + 5.67 billion pounds per day (90 million cattle, 63 pounds waste per one cattle per day) = 6.75 billion pounds per day waste or 2.464 trillion pounds waste per year (manure+urine)

** 3.745 trillion pounds waste per year

[vi] Enough waste to cover, etc: based on 1 pound of waste per 1 square foot of land

“Animal farms produce as much manure as small and medium sized cities. A farm with 2500 dairy cattle is similar in waste load to a city of 411,000 people.”

On a 1000-pound live weight basis, each of these animals produces more waste than a human. A CAFO with 1000 animal units of turkeys produces a waste load comparable to a city of 87,700 people. A dairy CAFO with 1000 animal units is equivalent to a city of 164,500 people. The important difference lies in the fact that human waste is treated before discharge into the environment, but animal waste is either not treated at all or minimally treated by virtue of the storage methods used before disposal.” http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=901V0100.txt

[vii] Additionally – Oppenlander says 1-2 trillion fish extracted (inc. “bycatch,”) from our oceans each year (“by fishing methods such as trawling, purse seine, long lines, explosives, and other techniques that are damaging ecosystems”) http://comfortablyunaware.com/blog/biodiversity-and-food-choice-a-clarification/ كليك كنيد.

[viii] The figures for by-kill rates can be as high as 20lbs of untargeted species trapped for every pound of targeted animals killed.

[ix] “The USDA currently forecasts 2013/14 palm oil production…total area devoted to oil palm plantings is estimated at a record 10.8 million hectares.” [26.7 million acres]

[x] “[Dorothy Stang’s] death prompted Amazon activists – more than 1,000 of whom have been murdered in the last 20 years – to demand Brazil’s government crack down on the illegal seizure and clearance of the rainforest to graze cattle, raise soy crops, and harvest timber.”

“More than 1,100 activists, small farmers, judges, priests and other rural workers have been killed in land disputes in the last two decades.”

[xi] A single cow can produce between 66-132 gallons of methane a day. The average US vehicle gas tank can hold about 16 gallons of gas.

[xii] “The US meat industry produced some 1.4 billion tons of waste in 1997— five tons of animal waste for every US citizen. (USDA)”http://www.worldwatch.org/fire-grill-mouthwatering-red-white-and-green-july-4th

[xiii] Grassland & pasture = 26%; cropland = 20%.

25% of all privately held acres in the US is used for grazing livestock. Harvested specifically for livestock feed: 35 million hectares of all corn in the US (36%) + 31.1 million hectares of all soybeans grown in the US (72%) + 24.4 million hectares of hay (nearly all hay production). http://www.cast-science.org/file.cfm/media/products/digitalproducts/CAST_WaterLand_Issues_IP_50_final_w_6AC28B58B3918.pdf كليك كنيد.

[xiv] The average person in the U.S. uses 405,000 gallons of freshwater per year (combination of the subfractions which comprise 206 pounds of meat per year– divided between 46 pounds of pig, 58 pounds of cow, 102 pounds of chicken and turkey in addition to 248 eggs and 616 pounds of dairy products), which equates to saving 1,100 gallons of water each day.

– 45lbs of grain saved per day: Grain: multiply ounces of each meat consumed daily per person by the feed conversion factor for each animal.

– It is estimated that 80,000 acres of rainforest are cleared each day with an additional 80,000 degraded, with 70-91% of that degradation for the livestock industry.

– CO2 based of feed conversion ratios and the average US meat consumption of 209lbs per year, per person.

Beef is at 22-27 kg CO2 Eq per kg produced/consumed X 2.5 ounces/day=1.75 kg  or 3.85 pounds

Cheese/milk is 13.5 kg per kg product X 2 pounds/day=12.15 kg or 12.5 pounds

Pork is 12 kg per kg product X 2 ounces/day=.68 kg or 1.5 pounds

Combination chicken and turkey is 7 kg per kg product X 4.48 ounces/day= .89 kg or 1.96 pounds minimally (using only chicken)

{turkey, for instance, is 11 kg per kg product}

Eggs are at 5 kg per kg product X 2/3 egg per day= (50 g/egg) .55 pounds

— which equals 20.36 pounds of CO2 Eq saved per day.
تعريف امايش سرزمين در ذيل نگاه كنيد

  1. Spatial Planning
     is a process of place shaping and delivery. It is about the management of space anddevelopment in order to create better places, responding to the needs of society, the economy and the environment.

    و براي اينكه كمي خسته نشوي خدا توفيق دهد از باغباني وفضاي سبز بيشتر سخن خواهيم گفت براي سرگرمي وشادماني شما و اموختن فن  در اخراكثر مطالب واگر فراموش كردم رودرواسي كنار وايميل بفرماييد. چون شادماني و انرژي خواهيد گرفت.
    اين هم براي گل دوستان اگر خواستي در تابستان از گلي لذت ببري با رعايت مصرف اب كه بايد كمبود را در اين مملكت جدي گرفت اين همان كوكب كوهي است كه قبلا گفتيم دوسال عمر مي كند در سال دوم 60 غنچه شخصا از يك بوته شمارش كردم .ديگري اطلسي ايراني مخلوط نه هلندي بسياري از ارقام هلندي در گرماي تابستان در بسياري از مناطق از بين مي رود جز تجربه داشته باشي در ان اقليم  وديگري ميمون پاكوتاه  كه گلهاي فراواني مي كند نه پابلند كه گل كمي از نظر ژنتيكي توليد مينمايد. در باغچه كوچكت بكار گلهاي اين سه گل همه زيبا واستقامتش در گرماي اب وهواي شيراز ز  واطراف بسيار خوب است توضيح اينكه گل اطلسي به كودنپوسيده حيواني بسيار حساس وريشه ان بيماري ريشه ميري قارچي مي گيرد كه از كود برگ پوسيده يا خاك تازه زراعي غني استفاده كنيد.

     

     

 

 

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