18 / 01 / 2016

ارسال شده توسط در خشکسالی, عناوین کل مطالب, مطالب علمی | 0 نظر

Impact of Haze on Health of Homan .. اثر ريز گرد( مه) و غبار بر سلامتي انسان وموجودات زنده

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 پزوهشگر و نويسنده و مترجم و تحليل از سيد محمود جعفري عضو كميته محيط زيست وقت استان فارس

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 اثر ريز گرد dust Haze  غبار( مه) برسلامتي انسان وموجودات زنده.
.برسي و ترجمه وتحليل از سيد محمود در گوگل منابع طبيعي فارس كلبه دانش نگاهي به جهان. سايت( از اب تا زندگي) پوشش گياهي كه نابود شود عواقب يكي دو تا نيست.ايا بشر اين را حس مي كني يا بگور مي بري وخود را به كر گوشي مي زني چون يا بي سوادي يا (سود) در ان داري..فاجعه اي كه از ماست كه بر ماست. درخت بنه چندين صد ساله نگاه به تنه ان بكنيد.گريه كه فقط براي فوت پدر ومادر نيست. در دست من در دشت موك فيروزاباد كنار كارخانه سيمان چه مي گويد. مردن تدريجي؟


قران كريم .سوره واقعه در ذيل. ايه  68تا70  سيد گويد ….پيامبر اسلام با زيباي تمام طوري قران را جمع بندي كرد كه به پيروانش در تاريخ بگويد به تمام اديان الهي وبشر بي ازار احترام خاص بگذاريد.زيراخداوندمهربان است.

-1- «آیا به آبى که مى‌نوشید اندیشیده‌اید؟! آیا شما آن را از ابر نازل کرده‌اید یا ما نازل مى‌کنیم؟! اگر مى‌خواستیم، این آب گوارا را تلخ و شور قرار مى‌دادیم، پس چرا شُکر نمى‌کنید؟!»1–(أَفَرَأَیْتُمُ الْماءَ الَّذِی تَشْرَبُونَ أَأَنْتُمْ أَنْزَلْتُمُوهُ مِنَ الْمُزْنِ أَمْ نَحْنُ الْمُنْزِلُونَ لَوْ نَشاءُ جَعَلْناهُ أُجاجاً فَلَوْ لا تَشْکُرُونَ)(6)
سوره حجر ايه 22

2- «ما بادها را براى بارور ساختن (ابرها) فرستادیم، و از آسمان آبى نازل کردیم و شما را با آن سیراب ساختیم، در حالى که شما توانایى حفظ و نگهدارى آن را نداشتید» وسيد گويد وبه ايندگان فكر نمي كنيد.زيرا خود زيادخواه مي باشيم. وبايد تاوان ان را هم پس بدهيم.

2–(وَ أَرْسَلْنَا الرِّیاحَ لَواقِحَ فَأَنْزَلْنا مِنَ السَّماءِ ماءً فَأَسْقَیْناکُمُوهُ وَ ما أَنْتُمْ لَهُ بِخازِنِینَ)(8) 


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منابع طبيعي دنيا را بهتر برنامه ريزي ومديرت كنيم و نابود نكنيم محيط زيست دنيا تعريف ان بدانيم وبهتر برنامه ريزي و قانون و اموزش وترويج وافعي نه شعاري پيشينه خود كنيم و با دنيا دست در دست هم دهيم به مهر كره خاكي را كنيم اباد.دير نشده همت مي خواهد.
اين مطلب در حال ترجمه وتحليل است صبر كنيد براي استفاده كامل.لطفا

فرمول. براي بعضي از نمايندگان مجلس جهان.خشك مغزهاي تار عنكبوتي.

 

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قبلا گفتيم دارا و سارا و اذر همان

نظر دارا وسارا در رابطه با مذاكره دو ديپلمات كشورها در هنگام مذاكرات.به دقت توجه كنيد.
1-دو  ديپلمات نبايد با يك زبان سخن گويد يعني يكي انگليس وديگري عربي بايد باشد.
2-دو  ديپلمات نبايد به زبان تخصصي ديپلماتي مسلط باشند.چون اگر يكي تخصص داشته باشد ديگري ابرو وسرش تكان مي دهد ومي گويد بله من فهميدم.كه هيچ هم نفهميده.
3- دو  ديپلمات نبايد در كنار هم در خيابان راه بروندشايد تنه انها بهم بخورد ومسايلي پيش ايد.
4-  دو  ديپلمات نبايد روبروي هم سر ميز مذاكارت بنشينند.شايد چشم يكي چشم ديگري را سحر وجادو كند.
5- دو  ديپلكات نبايد با هم در يك اطاق خلوت كنند .شايد اتفاق ناگواري بيفتد.
6- دو   ديپلمات نبايد لباس شيك ورسمي بپوشند.
7- دو   ديپلمات نبايد در يك خودرو در كنار هم بنشينند.
8- دو  ديپلمات بايد يك نفر كاملا انها را زير نظروكلام كلام صحبت هاي انها را يا ضبط كند يا ياداشت نمايد.
9- افراد بي سواد  كه از توسعه پايدارمملكت ها هيچ خبر ندارند  بايدموي دماغ دو ديپلمات شوند.شايد از اين طريق به عقده هاي خود كه خود هم نمي دانند چيست جز بي برنامه گي وبفكر اينده مردم نباشند برسند.اين گروه در نمايندگان مجلس بعضي از كشورها تاريخ مي گويد بوده و است. ولي نوعي مريضي استاز بي سوادي كه خداوند انها را امتحان مي كند. از كلبه دانش.

 

Haze-induced illnesses     بيماريهاي ناشي از ريز گرد ها وگردو غبار و مه در دنيا وايران

 بيماريهاي   كشنده   ارام   و    تدريجي   و بي( مدرك با مدرك). نمايندگان مجلس كشورها دنيا روي اين پيامد برنامه ريزي و سرگرم شويد.  اگر تخصص داريد؟ .شايد مردم از شما راضي شوند.

If you have asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) like chronic bronchitis or emphysema, obstructive sleep apnoea and heart diseases like coronary artery disease or heart failure, be very careful during hazy weather. If you have asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) like chronic bronchitis or emphysema, obstructive sleep apnoea and heart diseases like coronary artery disease or heart failure, be very careful during hazy weather.بيماري اسم.يا تنگي نفس يك نوع بيماري مزمن وشديدوطولاني ومسدود كننده سيستم ريوي كه به ان(copo )گفته مي شود .همانند برونشيت مزمن كه سرفه و تنفس غير عادي به دنبال داشته در بي خوابي اثرگذار وهمجنين توقف نفس كشيدن در هنگام خواب به دنبال داشته وضربه به رگهاي خوني رسانده ونارساي قلبي را به دنبال دارد و اين نكته مهم است كه انسانها حتي جانوران در هنگام هواي الوذه گردوغبار وريز گرد و مه بايد مسايل ايمني را رعايت كنند.

Particles emitted by forest fires (resulting in the haze) can be toxic to the lungs. They can penetrate deep into the lungs and get absorbed by the blood stream.
اتش سوزي هر نوع پوشش گياهي همانند جنگلها ومراتع وبقاياي كشت زراعي وغيره كه مه وغبار به دنبال دارد مي تواند سمي باشد ودر ششهاي انسان عميقا وارد وجذب ودر خون انسان وحيوانات وارد شود وبه دنبال انبيماري هاي شناخته وغير شناخته به دنبال داشته باشد.

I LIVE in Muar, where schools have been closed due to the haze and visibility is very poor. I dare not let my children go out at all. We have shut ourselves in the house and switched the air-conditioning on. I am worried for my old parents. Can we die from the haze?

Yes, you can. But it has to be disease-related. ما اول بدانيم مه وغبار وبه عبارتي ريز گرد چيست ترجمه در ذيل نگاه منيد.

But first of all, you have to understand what the haze is. The haze is an atmospheric condition where particles, smoke, dust and moisture suspend in the air. The more of these particles, smoke and dust there are, the less visible our environment will be.
 تعريف…بنابراين .مه وغبار شريط وحالت( جوي) است هنگامي كه ذرات دود وگرد و خاك در هوا  معلق و با رطوبت مخلوط شده.و بنابراين اين امر باعث شده كه ما محيط اطراف را نتوانيم ببينيم وتاريكي افقي را به دنبال داشته حتي تا چند كيلومتر و پس اين گرد وغبار از كجا بدشت مي ايد وقتي جنگلها ومراتع نابود مي شود وبه دنبال ان پوشش گياهي از بين رفته.اراضي زراعي به علت نداشتن مديرت اصولي از جمله  فقر اراضي ومواد عالي شوري خاك نداشتن مديرت كشت حفاظتي كه اين اراضي روز به روز به اراضي بياباني تبديل مي شود امار است كه در چين حدود 30 درصد از اراضي زراعي گذشته به كارخانجات تبديل شده ودر كشورهاي ديگر راهم نگاه كنيد. و بي ابي و چراي بيش اندازه حيوانات بخصوص( پرورش بز) در بسياري از كشورها و اقليم هاي خاص همانند بيابانهاي از گذشته به جاي مانده و مسايل جنگها و زنجير هاي چرخ تانكها دود كارخانجات بخصوص كارخانه هاي سيمان و پالاشگاها وهمه كارخانه جات دودزا وميليونها دود اتوموبيل در دنيا و گردش بادها و طوفانها همه كمك كرده كه اين مه وغبارها و يا به عبارتي ريزگردها در بسياري از كشورها از جمله ايران در بسياري از شهرستانها از چندين سال گذشته شروع و سال به سال هم شدت خواهد گرفت .به دنبال ان زندگي انسان و حيوانات و حتي گياهان را مختل كرده و هنگامي كه اين وقايع رخ مي دهد .برگ درختان را نگاه كنيد  كه چند ميلي متر خاك روي ان نشته و نفس گياهان را مي گيرد وزماني كه كمي باران مي بارد روي خودرو خودرا نگاه كنيد مردمي كه به بيماستانها مراجعه مي كنند به هزار شكوائيه نگاه كنيد بسياري از اين گردوخاك ها ازديدگاه علم خاك شناسي ريز وسنگ شناسي براي موجودات زنده ميتوانند مضر باشند.به لنت ترمز كه حاوي ازبستكه سرطان زا است نگاه كنيد وبه انواع پلاستيك كه در معرض افتاب قرار مي گيرد نگاه كنيد دولتهاي كه اهميت نمي دهند كه با هم يك پارچه كمك كنند براي بكار بردن فنون علمي كه اراضي را تجديد پوشش گياهي كنند نگاه كنيد.باتلاقها را كه خشك مي كنند براي مسايل اقتصادي از جمله چاهاي نفت وگاز وساخت كارخانه جات وغيره نگاه  كنيد.

 

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The haze is only one of the “horizontal obscurations” that we have in the world.

The World Meterological Organization classifies horizontal obscuration into different categories: fog, ice fog, steam fog, mist, haze, smoke, volcanic ash, dust, sand and snow.
سازمان هواشناسي دنيا تاريكي افقي را به چند دسته تقسيم بندي كردهاست.1-خود مه 2-مه يخي 3- مه بخار 4- مه گرفتگي تاري 5- دود 6- خاكستر اتش فشاني7-شن ريزه 8- خاك ريزه 9-برف با خاك يا شن10- برف با دوده و غبار…. مشكل مملكت ما بيشتر مه باخاك وشن ريزه و دوده  است. ايران … منابع طبيعي و  محيط زيست وشهرداريها وعلاقمندان طبيعت دوست درخت خرنوب هميشه سبز را  براي مسايل زيست محيطي در خوزستان وبوشهر وبنرر عباس وسيستان وبلوچستان وغيره وهر كجا كه  رويشگاه مركبات مي رويد توسعه بده.
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A “haze” may be produced by open burning (what is occurring now), farming (if you plough the fields in dry weather), pollution from traffic (it seems that there is a permanent haze in Los Angeles, for example), and smoke from industry and wildfires (like what occured in Australia a few years ago).

What kind of diseases can I get from the haze? .چه امراضي ما مي تئوانيم بگيريم در اثر ريزگردها وغبار ومه

You can get a spectrum of diseases involving your respiratory tract as you breathe in those particles, and your eyes, which is exposed to the environment.
شما مي توانيد طيفهاي بسياري از امراض را در بر گيريد.مسايل گوناگون تنفسي وچشمي وحساسيتهاي پوستي.
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You can get:شما مي توانيد اين مشكلات را در بر گيريد.,

·Conjunctivitis or inflammation of the eye.
ورم ملتحبه يا التهابي چشمي

·Nasal irritation, causing you to produce a lot of mucous and start clearing your throat excessively, or sneeze and cough.
ورم ملتحبه وابسته به بيني وگلودرد وحساسيتهاي گوناگون شناخته وناشناخته هم مشكل سازاست براي موجودات رندهاز جمله انسان وحيوان.

·Throat irritation, leading to a sore throat, which in turn can produce mucous and clog up your pharynx area.

·Lung tissue inflammation and scarring. At high levels of the haze, you may start to cough and even feel breathless. At lower levels of pollution, people with a pre-existing lung or heart disorder may start to feel breathless and cough.
التهاب ششها در زماني كه كردوغبار وريزگردها ومه زياد مي شودوشما ممكن است به اندازهاي سرفه كنيدكه نفس شما قطع شود و كساني كه مشكلات اوليه قلبي وششي دارند انها هم به نفس تنگي وسرفه مي افتند.

So if your loved ones or friends have conditions such as asthma, heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, you should make sure they stay indoors as much as possible and avoid the haze.

It is stated that if the API goes from 50 to 150, you can see a 12% increase in upper respiratory tract diseases, a 19% increase in asthma cases, and a 26% increase in nose inflammation.

How would I know if the haze is affecting me? چگونه مي توانيم بدانيم كه مه وريزگردهاي غباري روي ما اثر گذاشته است

You may start to experience these symptoms. These are usually short-term. Look out for:

·Watery or irritated eyes.1- شما امكان دارد چشمتان وبيني اب ريزش پيدا كند.

·Actual reddening, itchiness and inflammation of the outer lining of your eyes (conjunctivitis).

·Runny nose, stuffy nose, sneezing. خارش چشم  حتي پوست ريزشاب بيني و عطصه كردن تك تك يا پي در پي.

·Post-nasal drip (where the mucous from the back of your nose drips into your throat, causing irritability, soreness and cough, especially at night when you are trying to sleep).

·Sore, dry and irritable throat, which you have to keep clearing.

·Coughing. سرفه كردن

·Headache and dizziness. سر گيجه وسردرد.

·Fatigue and the feeling of malaise. خستگي معمولي يا زياد و بي قراري.

·Mental irritability and the feeling of being stressed out. مشكلات روحي ورواني ومشكلات استرس روحي وبدني

·Difficulty breathing, especially on exertion, because your lung function has decreased. مشكلات در تنفس و زور زدن در تنفس يعني به سختي و ششهاي انسان وحيوانات سخت عمل مي كند

·Bronchitis and lung infections.Most of these symptoms are usually mild. They will get better if you stay indoors and do not expose yourself to the haze. بيماري برونشيت وشش ها خوب عمل نكردن معمولا ملايم مي باشند. ودر صورتي  كه  انسان در منزل  بماندبهترين گزينه است براي پيش گيري با دستوراعمل پزشك. وهوشاري خود.

My elderly father has chronic bronchitis. Will the haze affect him more than me?
در اين جا سئوال شده كه پدر من برونشيت مزمن دارد.ايا گردوغبار بيشتر از من او را با مشكل مواجه خواهد كرد.وپاسخ بلي است كه افراد پير وبيمار وبچه ها وانهاي كه بيماري اسم  وتنفسي وقلبي دارند.بيشتر در معرض بيماري قرار مي گيرند.

Yes. You have to be very careful with your loved ones or friends suffering from lung and heart diseases, including asthma (especially for children).

If you have asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) like chronic bronchitis or emphysema, obstructive sleep apnoea and heart diseases like coronary artery disease or heart failure, be very careful.

You may have acute exacerbations of your existing conditions. For example, if you have asthma, the haze can actually induce an acute attack, which you may have to manage by rushing yourself to the emergency department of the hospital. Will the haze have any long-term effects, like lung cancer? ايا ريزگردها وغبار ومه در طولاني مدت اثر وخيم در سلامتي انسان مي گذارد همانند سرطان.

Particles emitted by forest fires can be toxic to the lungs. They can penetrate deep into the lungs and get absorbed by the blood stream.ذرات ريز كه با مخلوطي از ذرات شناخته شده وغير شناخته ريزگردهامي باشد.به هوا ودر جو مي رود وتوسط بادها حركت كرده ومي تواند سمي باشد.ودر خون انسان جذب ومشكلات بدنبال خواهد داشت مسلما.

Studies have shown that people exposed to the haze (fine particles) frequently experience a faster thickening of their arteries, and this reduces life expectancy by a few years..مطالعه انجام گرفته بر روي افرادي كه در مقابل ريزگردها و مه وهمان دودها و همان غبارها  مداوماقرار مي گيرند مشكلات عروقي در بر داشته وعمر انها كوتاه وكوتاه تر مي شود.

Long-term exposure to particles 2.5 micrometers or smaller can increase your risk of developing diabetes. نكته قابل توجه اين كه افرادي كه در مقابل اين ريز گردها قرار مي گيرندوقتي در حد 2.5 ميكروميتر ويا كوچك تر قرار مي گيرند خطر بيماري قند بيماري قند در انها ظاهر مي شود كه خيلي از پزشكان ومردم عادي تصور ان هم نمي كنند.

For pregnant mothers, be extra careful, because this is associated with spontaneous abortion, birth defects and high infant death rates. براي مادرهاي حامله بي احتياط و اينك بعضا ناچارند در محل كار باشند خطر سقط جنين در نوزادان گزارش است كه بسياري از مردم توجه ندارند. ونهايتا خطر بيماري سرطاني ريه وششها بيشتر است.

It is not known at this stage if the risk of lung cancer is higher.

1.         What are the key air pollutants of concern?

 

 Comparison between Old and New PSI

3.  What is the difference between the old PSI and the new PSI?

The new PSI incorporates PM2.5 into the PSI, along with the existing five pollutant parameters. Therefore the six pollutant parameters tracked in the new PSI are: sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). PM10 refers to particulate matter that is equal or smaller than 10 microns in diameter and includes PM2.5 particles which are equal or smaller than 2.5 microns.

The PSI value gives an indication of the air quality as shown:

PSI Value PSI Descriptor
0 – 50 Good   – 1خوب
51 – 100 Moderate –  2 متوسط
101 – 200 Unhealthy   – 3 ناسالم
201 – 300 Very unhealthy-4 خيلي ناسالم
Above 300 Hazardous -5- خطر ناك شديد

according to Singapore’s National Environment Agency (NEA).[7]

PSI Descriptor General Health Effects
0–50 Good None
51–100 Moderate Few or none for the general population
101–150 Unhealthy for sensitive groups Members of sensitive groups may experience health effects. The general public is not likely to be affected.
151–200 Unhealthy Everyone may begin to experience health effects; members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects. To stay indoors.
201-300 Very unhealthy Health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected.
301+ Hazardous Health alert: everyone may experience more serious health effects

شاخص اندازه گیری استاندارد آلایندگی هوا( Pollutant Standards Index) یا (PSI) معیاری برای تعیین میزان آلودگی هوا در آن منطقه محسوب می شود که براساس محاسبه متوسط میزان غلظت ذرات معلق با قطر کمتر از 2.5 میکرون مورد سنجش قرار می گیرد.
میزان حد مجاز ( استاندارد ملاک عمل ) برای تمام پارامترها برحسب شاخص استاندارد آلودگی 100= PSI تعیین شده است که بر این اساس معیار سطح اهمیت بهداشتی شاخص کیفیت هوا به ترتیب از صفر تا 50 در شرایط پاک (1)، 51 تا 100 سالم ( 2 )، 101 تا 150 ناسالم برای گروه حساس(3)، 151 تا 200 ناسالم (4)، 201 تا 300 بسیار ناسالم (5) و 301 تا 500 در شرایط خطرناک (6) می باشد.  اين جول دراينده بيشتر كار خواهد شد.لطفا استفاده نكنيد.

The key air pollutants of concern include particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. Short term exposure (i.e. continuous exposure to unhealthy daily average PSI levels over a period of a few days) to these air pollutants can cause respiratory symptoms and aggravate existing heart or lung disease. Exposure to particulate matter and sulphur dioxide may also cause irritation of the eyes, nose and throat in healthy individuals.

In Singapore, the main air pollutant in the event of haze is particulate matter (PM).

2.         What is the short term effect of the haze on my health?

Among healthy individuals, short term exposure (i.e. continuous exposure to unhealthy daily average PSI levels over a period of a few days) to high levels of haze particles may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat in healthy individuals.  Such irritation resolves on its own in most cases.

Haze particles can affect the heart and lungs, especially in people who already have chronic heart or lung disease e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or heart failure.

There may be up to 1-3 days of time between exposure to haze and health effects/ symptoms.

3.         What are the long term effects of the haze?

Singapore is not affected by the haze throughout the year. Any exposure is short-term in nature (i.e. continuous exposure to unhealthy daily average PSI levels over a period of a few days) and such exposure may vary from year to year.  As international studies are based on long term exposure to air pollution, there is little robust data on the longer-term effects of short-term exposure to haze like the pattern seen in Singapore.

Studies have shown that persons living overseas with continuous exposure over several years to high ambient pollution from fine particles (i.e. particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5); particles smaller than 2.5 micrometres), may have a higher risk of (i) cardiovascular effects, such as heart attacks, (ii) reduced lung development, as well as (iii) the development of chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma, in children.

4.         What is the revised Pollutant Standard Index? How is it different from PSI reporting last year?

The new, integrated air quality reporting index incorporates PM2.5 in addition to sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone. Previously, health advisories issued by the Government were based on both 24-hour PSI and 24-hour PM2.5, whichever was worse. Under the new air quality reporting system, the health advisory will be based on the new 24-hour PSI as it now directly takes into account PM2.5.

5.         Why is the health advisory based on 24-hour PSI, rather than the 3-hour PSI? Why does Singapore calculate the Particulate Matter (PM) in air pollution based on the 24-hour measurement? Why not use sub-daily measurements?

The health impact of exposure to particulate matter in the air depends on the concentration and duration of the exposure, as well as the health status and level of activity of the individual. The health advisory is based on the 24-hour PSI (incorporating 24-hour PM2.5 concentration), as most scientific studies on the health effects of short-term exposure to PM use 24-hour averages, and have demonstrated good links with 24-hour PM averages. The use of 24-hour averages for PM is also consistent with international guidelines, such as the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards and the World Health Organization’s Air Quality Guidelines. Fewer studies have investigated shorter (sub-daily) exposure timeframes. In fact, a US EPA study in 2011 concluded that there was insufficient basis to establish a national standard with a shorter-than-24 hour averaging time. MOH will continue to monitor research in this area.

6.         Which groups of people are more sensitive to haze?

In general, children, elderly, and people with chronic lung disease, heart disease are more sensitive to the health effects of haze, and should adopt the preventive measures in the MOH health advisory when air quality is poor. Individuals are advised to consult their doctor should they develop breathing difficulties. In addition, it is advised that pregnant women reduce exposure to haze for the health of their unborn baby.

7.         What is MOH’s advice to the public?

The public is recommended to adhere to the MOH haze health advisory (Annex A). In most cases, it is still safe to carry on with outdoor activities. However, do drink plenty of water to stay well hydrated.  Individuals with existing chronic heart and lung conditions should ensure that your medications are on hand and readily available.

8.         Is the health advisory applicable to everyone?

While the health advisory provides generic precautionary advice, individual reactions to pollutants may vary. For instance, some vulnerable people, such as those with heart and lung conditions, may experience increased symptoms at PSI levels below 100. Such individuals are advised to be cautious and seek appropriate medical attention as needed.

9.       How will the haze impact patients in nursing homes and subsidised wards with natural ventilation?

These patients are indoors and sedentary. The healthcare institutions, such as hospitals and nursing homes, will monitor patients closely, and ensure ample circulation of clean air indoors.

 

Haze, a hotbed of respiratory-associated infectious diseases, and a new challenge for disease control and prevention in China

During 2013 an incessant dense haze shrouded nearly half of China, affecting approximately 800 million inhabitants. Previously, the southeast region, including Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, had been enveloped in extreme haze; and before that, a similar situation occurred in northern China.1 Haze continues to wreak havoc throughout the country. Meanwhile, human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus reemerged during January 2014 and has led to 31 deaths.2 This number is almost as high as for all of 2013; more unfortunately, the attack rate of H7N9 infection was highly sporadic.

Environmental epidemiology research in recent decades has shown that hazy weather conditions are associated with increased morbidity due to respiratory infections and risks of other diseases.3 Last year after each bout of extremely hazy weather, the number of patients with respiratory diseases increased significantly4; in these patients, some cases developed into severe pneumonia and death. The number of patient admissions for respiratory infection into the Infectious Diseases Department of our hospital in Shanghai increased by more than 3-fold over 3 months compared with the same period the previous year.

Small particulate matter of 2.5 microns in diameter or less (PM2.5), which is easily absorbed into the lungs, is considered to be the primary cause of the recent hazy weather in China. Researchers have explained that PM2.5 contains toxic chemicals and microparticles that attach to pathogenic microorganisms. When people are exposed to haze, PM2.5 can penetrate deeply into the lungs through the respiratory tract due to its small size, thus decreasing the resistance of lung tissue to pathogenic microorganisms and thereby increasing the risk of respiratory disease.5 Dr Hongzhou Lu (deputy director of the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center for H7N9 bird flu) has declared that the recent hazy conditions increase the risk of respiratory infection, including H7N9, but do not directly result in the proliferation of viruses. Likewise, data from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention did not show severe acute respiratory syndrome or influenza virus outbreaks in the Chinese population during 2013, the worst year of haze in more than half a century in China. Despite the fact that haze-associated respiratory infection is not as serious as severe acute respiratory syndrome, a wide range, long duration, and high frequency of haze occurrence, coupled with its long-term effects, will bring new challenges to the Chinese medical community in the future.

The increasing number of cases of respiratory infection, especially skyrocketing cases of human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus during January 2014, forced the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention as well as medical institutions to prepare to actively meet the challenge. The National Health and Family Planning Committee has plans to collect first-hand data through the establishment of the National Haze Health Effects Monitoring Network to find strategies and administrate policy in the future. The Environmental Protection Department is also actively setting more stringent industry standards to control the sources of haze.

Although masks can reduce inhalation of harmful substances and the incidence of haze-related respiratory diseases, haze governance and improving air quality are effective means to reduce the attack rate of haze-related respiratory diseases. After all, economic development should not be at the expense of people’s health.من به تمام مردم روي كره خاكي دعوت مي كنم كه سوره حجر و سوره واقعه در قران كريم را حتما مطالعه نماييد با زبان مادري يا مسلط به عربي.زيرا از اب تا خاك و حيوانات تا از انسان تا از همه چيز در اين ايه ها خدواند بشر را ارشاد كرده است. عواقب نبود پوشش گياهي يكي دوتا نيست.

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