17 / 01 / 2016

ارسال شده توسط در عناوین کل مطالب, مطالب علمی | 0 نظر

Asbest and environment and lung and cancer disease.ازبست چيست.ازبست ومحيط زيست ازبست و سرطان

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پزوهشگر ونويسنده ومترجم وتحليل از سيد محمود جعفري عضو كميته محيط زيست وقت استان فارس.

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ازبست پنبه نسوز يا پنبه كوهي
:
نام گروهي از تركيبات معدني سليكاتهاي كلسيم و مگنيزيم و اهن  كه داراي
انواع مختلفي است كه( كريزوتايل) كه داراي رنگ سفيد مي باشد تقريبا گفته مي شود 90 در صد توليد ازبست جهان را بخود اختصاص داده است.

 

Asbestos is the general name for a wide variety of silicate minerals, primarily silicates of calcium, magnesium, and iron. Silicates are commonly occurring minerals that all contain a characteristic combination of silicon and oxygen similar to that found in silicon dioxide (sand). The two most common families of asbestos minerals are called the amphiboles and serpentines. Most people know of asbestos today because of health problems attributed to it. Prolonged exposure results in a pneumonia-like condition known as asbestosis, which is often fatal.

More than a dozen minerals are classified under the general name of asbestos. These minerals differ from each other in many ways, but all have one important property in common: their fibrous character. The most common form of asbestos, chrysotile, consists of long, hollow, cylindrical fibers that are about 25 nanometers in diameter. (A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter.)

All asbestos fibers are more or less rigid and more or less noncombustible. Their resistance to burning is, in fact, responsible for their name. The Greek word asbeston means “noncombustible.”

During the first half of the twentieth century, asbestos cement was widely used for construction. In many respects, it was the ideal building material: strong, fireproof, and a good insulator. Untold numbers of homes, schools, office buildings, naval ships, and other structures were built with linings of asbestos.

After World War II (1939–45), scientists discovered that asbestos fibers can cause a variety of respiratory disorders in humans, such as lung cancer and asbestosis, a pneumonia-like condition. Discovering the relationship between asbestos and these conditions took a long time; the disorders commonly do not appear until 20 years or more after a person is exposed to asbestos.

Individuals most at risk for asbestos-related problems are those continually exposed to the mineral fibers. This includes those who work in asbestos mining and processing as well as those who use the product in some other manufacturing line, as in the production of brake linings. Over the past two decades, massive efforts have been made to remove asbestos-based materials from buildings where they are especially likely to pose health risks, as in school buildings and public auditoriums. Recent critics of asbestos removal maintain that—if not done properly—the removal processactually intensifies the problem by spreading more asbestos fibers into the air

به جدول ذيل كه اينجانب از سايت هاي معتبر گرفته ام در باره (ازبست)    asbest  خوب به دقت مطالعه ومحاسبه وخود هم قضاوت كنيد چه در ايران وچه در جهان وسايلي كه در دنيا از ازبست تهيه مي شود بيشمار است ودر كشورهاي در حال توسعه بيداد مي كند ودر كشورهاي توسعه يافته هم بسيار زياد است بعضي از قانون ها با نياز بشر وزيركي بشر كارساز نيست.ونبوده است ونخواهد بود.

كشورهاي كه به خاطر بيماريها منع يا محدود كرده اند

بشترين توليدكنندگان جهان

بيشترين  صادر كنندهاي جهان

بيشترين مصرف كنندهاي جهان

استراليا

روسيه

1/017

روسيه

657

چين

626

آفريقاجنوبي

قزاقستان

230

قراقستان

216

هند

302

آرژانتين

چين

280

برزيل

178

روسيه

280

هندوراس

كانادا

180

كانادا

176

قزاقستان

109

گابون

برزيل

255

چين

14

برزيل

94

عربستان

در سال

2008

در سال

2008

در سال

2007

 روماني

 

 

 

آلمان

مصر

اسپانيا

فرانسه

ايتاليا 

انگلستان

لهستان 

 ژاپن

LTH CONSIDERATIONS

During the first half of the twentieth century, asbestos cement was widely used for construction. In many respects, it was the ideal building material: strong, fireproof, and a good insulator. Untold numbers of homes, schools, office buildings, naval ships, and other structures were built witliasbes

Individuals most at risk for asbestos-related problems are those continually exposed to the mineral fibers. This includes those who work in asbestos mining and processing as well as those who use the product in some other manufacturing line, as in the production of brake linings. Over the past two decades, massive efforts have been made to remove asbestos-based materials from buildings where they are especially likely to pose health risks, as in school buildings and public auditoriums. Recent critics of asbestos removal maintain that—if not done properly—the removal process actually intensifies the problem by spreading more asbestos fibers into the air.

 

mesothelioma and asbestos world wide
ترجمه ذيل بيانگر ان است كه 125 ميليون از مردم

جهان هر سال در معرض ازبست قرار مي گيرند

در هنگام كار و 100هزاركارگران درجهان جان خود

را از دست مي دهد وبايد كفت جندهزارو ميليون نفر ازمردم عمومي جهان جان خود را ازدست مي دهند.جعفري مي گويد حدود 50

كشور مي گويند ما از نظر قانوني اين مواد

معدني را يا محدود كرده ايم يامنع كرده ايم كه

همه صحيح نمي فرمايند.در عمل اين طور نيست

و به عكسهاي ذيل نگاه كنيد توضيح نياز نيست

.
(مزوتليوما) وازبست سرطان ريه وحنجره ودستگاه

گوارش وساير عوارض جانبي همه از (ازبست) مي

باشد كه كشورها  ومردم با يد رعايت كنند و راه

جاره اي نيست جز عمل. .عمل همان است كه در

قران كريم مي فرمايد كه اگر عمل نباشد دين نداري و نيست

واگر يكتا پرستي و دين نباشد عمل صحيح نيست.واگر كتابهاي

اسما ني را با زبان مادري مطالعه نكني در رگ

وخونت جا نمي گيرد جز زبان دوم را خوب بداني

وخوب از كلمات درك مطلب داشته باشي. ودر غير اين صورت فقط از صوت خوشمان مي ايد واز معني خبري نيست.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 125 million people around the world are annually exposed to asbestos in the workplace, and the International Labor Organization says about 100,000 workers die each year from a related disease.

Despite the fact that health concerns have prompted more than 50 countries to restrict or ban the use of asbestos since the early 1970s, others continue to mine and consume the toxic mineral in alarming quantities. Supported for decades by aggressive industry campaigns, the popularity of asbestos is currently rising in developing nations where affordable, mass-produced building materials are in high demand.

Pro-asbestos lobby groups have spent nearly $100 million in public and private funds since the mid-1980s to keep the industry alive in Canada, Brazil and India.

But the affordability of asbestos does not come without costs — namely in human lives. Although supporters contest the toxicity of white asbestos when used under controlled conditions, countless studies have linked exposure of any type or dose to an increased risk for asbestos-related diseases, including mesothelioma.

Mesothelioma treatment for patients outside the U.S.: If you live outside the United States and need expert treatment for mesothelioma, you may be eligible for a new no-cost cancer treatment program.Email us to learn more.

WHO argues that the best way to eliminate these diseases is to stop mining and using the mineral.

In 2010, the American Public Health Association joined the call of at least three major international health organizations in asking for a global ban on asbestos use. The World Federation of Public Health Organizations, the International Commission on Occupational Health, and the International Trade Union Confederation earlier recommended such a ban.

According to Jock McCulloch and Geoffrey Tweedale, authors of Defending the Indefensible: The Global Asbestos Industry and its Fight for Survival, “Asbestos is still mined and used in the developing world, where the problems that were experienced in America and Europe in the 20th century are now being duplicated in China, Russia, India and other countries in the Far East.”

Worldwide Production and Use

The world leaders in asbestos production include Canada, Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan. With their massive exports, these and other nations are threatening millions of lives in the developing world.

China, the world’s leading asbestos consumer, used 626,000 metric tons of it in 2007. That’s 350 times the amount consumed by the United States that year. Although China has yet to match the incidence of related diseases experienced in Europe and the U.S., researchers expect the gap to soon close. This is because consumption in China remained low well into the 1970s.

The world’s second largest asbestos consumer is India, whose government states that use has risen by 83 percent since 2004.

Canada

Black Lake Asbestos Mine

Canada has recently been recognized as the country responsible for not adding asbestos to the international hazardous list. Canada’s mining efforts started around 1850 when chrysotile deposits were discovered in Thetford. By 1876, approximately 50 tons of asbestos were being mined in Quebec. By the 1950s, the annual mining haul was more than 900,000 tons.

In early 2011, the Jeffrey Mine in Asbestos, Quebec, received scrutiny after the Canadian government proposed a $58 million grant to reopen the mine. Because private investors failed to raise $25 million by the July 1, 2011, deadline to purchase the mine, the grant from the Quebec government has been delayed for an unknown amount of time. This delay is intended to give investors more time to raise funds.

As recently as June 2011, Canada again decided not to support adding chrysotile asbestos to the list of hazardous substances in the Rotterdam Convention, an international treaty that promotes unity and responsibility about exporting and importing hazardous chemicals and substances. Canada is the only G8 country that has not voted to include asbestos in the treaty. In 2013, Russia, Zimbabwe, Kazakhstan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Vietnam and Ukraine all opposed the listing, while Canada remained neutral for the first time.

Despite its hard-line position, Canada actually uses very little asbestos. It exports 96 percent of the mined mineral to Asian countries.

Russia

Russia, which is the largest country in the world in terms of land mass, also leads the planet in asbestos production. In 2000, production reached approximately 700,000 tons, much more than Canada and China. By 2008, mining in Russia produced more than 1 million tons of asbestos.

Russia’s high production numbers stem from the city Asbest, located about 900 miles northeast of Moscow. Once known as “the dying city” because of its high rates of mesothelioma and related diseases, Asbest is home to a mine that measures seven miles long, one-and-a-half-miles wide and more than 1,000 feet deep.

About 500,000 tons of asbestos is gathered from the mine each year.

Unlike Canada, Russia has remained a large user of asbestos. It is the world’s third-largest consumer, trailing only China and India. Russia has widely used the mineral in roofing materials, automobile brakes and insulation. About 3,000 asbestos-containing products have been labeled as safe by the Chief Sanitary Officer of Russia.

China

China is one of the world’s largest producers of asbestos. The country mined more than 450,000 tons in 2000, a total that placed it behind only Russia in terms of production. Since, Chinese production has fallen. Its mining total fell to about 280,000 tons in 2008.

Chinese manufacturers and builders consume large amounts of the mineral, using it for roofing materials, walls, brake pads, gaskets and cloth. Jukka Takala, director of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, believes the annual Chinese death toll from mesothelioma and related diseases could reach 15,000 by 2035.

At the 2009 Asian Asbestos Conference, a “Hong Kong Declaration towards a Complete Ban on all forms of Asbestos” and asbestos processing was recommended. The declaration asked for asbestos use to be phased out and recognized the need of assistance for those suffering from related diseases.

Brazil

Brazil is the world’s third-largest producer of asbestos. It is also the third-largest exporter, shipping primarily to Asia, Mexico and Colombia. Although exporting brings in a significant amount of revenue for exporters, Brazil keeps a large share of the mineral within its borders. The country used 94,000 tons as recently as 2007, ranking it No. 5 among the world’s consumers.

There are 11 Brazilian companies that continue to mine asbestos and produce products with it. The production generates about $1.3 billion annually for the country’s economy. While these companies employ nearly 3,500 people, the industry claims that mining the toxic substance creates about 200,000 jobs.

Estimates predict the rate of mesothelioma and related deaths will continue rising in Brazil’s future. Dr. Ubiratan de Paula Santos, a pulmonologist at the University of São Paulo Medical School, treats about 20 mesothelioma cases a year, and he says that number is slowly climbing. The majority of his patients are current or former asbestos plant workers.

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is one of the world’s largest producers of asbestos, mining 230,000 tons of it in 2009. While Kazakhstan exports most of the mineral it mines, it does consume some. Houses, apartment buildings, hospitals, schools, commercial buildings, brakes and other products are manufactured with contaminated products. Recent developments, however, may turn this trend.

In 2009, 75 participants of a conference on the use of chrysotile asbestos and its health effects recommended the Kazakh government support a national program to eliminate asbestos-related diseases. Since the conference, the first of its kind in Kazakhstan, other seminars on the side effects of the mineral have pushed the notion that Kazakh citizens are ill-informed about these materials. Those leading the seminars say there is now stronger public participation in monitoring existing asbestos regulations.

India

The second-most populous country with more than 1.2 billion people, India’s extensive use of asbestos will likely have a significant impact on the future health of the country’s population. Experts predict a pattern similar to what developed in the United States over the past 50 years: a dramatic rise in the number of related diseases.

India no longer mines asbestos, but it is the top importer of Canadian asbestos. About 20 years ago, India handled 500,000 tons of asbestos cement roofing. Today, that number is closer to 4 million tons.

India changed its long-held stance and voted to add the mineral to the hazardous list at the 2011 Rotterdam Convention.

The Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI) is a group of scientists, doctors, public health researchers, trade unions, activists and civil society groups that condemn the use of the mineral and push for an immediate ban. BANI has been successful in drawing attention to the hazards and toxic effects of exposure.

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom in 1931 introduced the Asbestos Industry Regulations. At the time, the regulations determined the “safe” level of exposure. In 1960, the legal exposure limit was increased, placing workers at a higher risk of contracting mesothelioma and related diseases. By 1968, the standards for exposure levels were lowered to reduce the risk of disease.

England, though, is paying for years of higher exposure. In 2008, the last year for which figures are available, 2,249 people in the UK died of mesothelioma. The UK has prohibited the trade, application and supply of crocidolite and amosite asbestos since the 1980s. Chrysotile asbestos was prohibited in 1999.

Australia

Australia has a long history of asbestos production and use, although its heavy-use years are long gone. Its peak year was 1975, when the country used about 70,000 tons. But years of overuse impacted the long-term health of Australian citizens: There were 551 deaths related to mesothelioma cancer in 2007, and it is estimated that by 2020, 18,000 Australians will have died from mesothelioma.

Perhaps no place in the world shows the toxicity of asbestos better than the town ofWittenoom in Western Australia. Mining began there in 1939, and eventually the predominant asbestos was crocidolite, replacing the less-toxic chrysotile asbestos. Multiple health reports indicate that exposure to crocidolite (blue) asbestos leads to an increase in the development of related diseases.

Because of Wittenoom’s long history of mining and the exposure that occurred as a result of that history, Western Australia has the highest rate of mesothelioma and related diseases in the world. The mining town was shut down in 1966 because of low profits and rising concerns over disease.

South Africa

South Africa began mining asbestos around 1883 after a crocidolite mine was established in the Northern Cape region in Koegas. The country developed into a major producer of crocidolite, supplying Australia and the United Kingdom with the heat-resistant mineral for many years.

South Africa’s mining of asbestos peaked in 1977 at 380,000 tons, making it the third-largest supplier in the world. But within a decade, the Northern Cape mines were closed because of the health risks involved and a growing concern over litigation.

Because the health effects of asbestos exposure were largely hidden by the mining industry, there was little public awareness of mesothelioma and related diseases until the late 1970s. Following the lead of the Northern Cape mines, several other mines in South Africa also closed, and residents of Prieska formed Concerned People Against Asbestos (CPAA), which focuses on improving access to compensation for citizens battling related diseases.

 iran  ايران .   در ايران معدن داريم واز اين مواد و وسيله هاي اشكال پايين نگاه كنيد وخود قضاوت كنيد وازپزشكان صاحب نظر ورادولوژي ها وجراح هان سئوال بفرماييد

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لطفا :براي مطالعه روي هركدام از موضوعات ذيل  كليك كنيد باز مي شود وما دراينده خلاصه مفيدي از اين مواد يعني (ازبست )و مشكلات ان ودر كجا كاربرد دارد  خواهيم گفت. ايا( عوامل بيماري ها )و (هواي پاك )براي انسانها وموجودات زنده مهم است به عنوان معلومات عمومي در اين قرن.انتخاب وبرسي وترجمه از جعفري (از اب تا زندگي ) تا محيط زيست.تا سلامتي انسانها.

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Other Conditions
Mesothelioma Asbestosis
Lung Cancer Lung Disease
Asbestos Cancer COPD
Other Related Conditions
Other Related Conditions

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ودر اخر سئوال است ايا  محصولات زندگي بشري مي تواند در اين دنيا بودن ازبست باشد.؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
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